Solar Panel Installation in India
Photovoltaic solar panels capture sunlight as a direct current producing energy source. A photovoltaic (PV) module is a packed, linked photovoltaic solar cell assembly accessible in different voltages and wattages. Photovoltaic modules are the photovoltaic array of a photovoltaic system generating and supplying solar power in commercial and residential implementations
.Photovoltaic systems use Sun light energy (photons) to produce electricity through the action of photovoltaics. Some modules use crystalline silicone cells or thin – film cells based on wafers. A module's structural (load carrying) component may be either the top layer or the rear layer. The cells must be secured against moisture and mechanical damage. Most modules are stiff but there are also semi – flexible modules centered on thin film cells. In series, the cells are electrically connected, one to another at a desired voltage, and then in parallel to increase amperage. The module wattage is the voltage's mathematical product, and the module's amperage.
A PV junction box is mounted on the rear of the solar panel and serves as its output port. For most photovoltaic modules, additional connections use MC4 connectors to allow simple weather resistant connections to the rest of the system. It can also be used with a USB power interface.
Electrical connections of modules are made in series to achieve the desired output voltage or in parallel to provide the desired solar panel or PV system current capability (amperes). The conducting wires which remove the current from the modules are sized by ampacity and may contain silver, copper or other non-magnetic transition metals. In the case of partial module shading, bypass diodes may be integrated or used externally to optimize the performance of still illuminated parts of the module.
Many specialized Solar PV modules have concentrators where light is concentrated on smaller cells through lenses or mirrors. This allows for the cost-effective use of cells with a high cost per unit area (such as gallium arsenide). Solar panels do use metal frames that consist of racking elements, braces, reflector shapes and troughs to help the panel structure more effectively.
Solar water heating systems are the most common usage of solar energy collection outside agriculture.
Multiple organizations have begun to integrate electronics into PV modules. It allows individual output of MPPT for each module, and performance data measurement for monitoring and identification of faults at module level. Most of these technologies make use of power optimizers, a technology developed by DC – to – DC converters to enhance power extraction from solar photovoltaic systems. These electronics can also compensate for shading effects from around 2010, whereby a shadow falling across a portion of a module causes the electrical output of one or more cell strings in the module to fall to zero, but not causing the output of the entire module to fall to zero.
Millions of homes and commercial buildings in urban and rural India have rooftops that receive ample daytime sunlight. These are ideal to harness the energy of the sun by converting it into electricity. It can be achieved by adding an interface known as an inverter to convert the DC power produced by the rooftop solar panels to AC power as most systems / machines run on AC. Whereas rooftops may be used to build rooftop sources of energy, different factors need to be weighed before deciding to install solar panels on a rooftop.
One can find three types of solar systems.
On Grid Systems
The first is the on-grid network that combines the rooftop solar array with the main grid source. This system provides power should be used from the grid only once the solar system on the rooftop is unable to provide the energy required. Therefore, a very well – planned rooftop network can deliver power effectively without the use of grid supply, saving expenditures otherwise incurred when using grid power. This system can actually earn revenue as any excess power produced can be fed to the grid for which DISCOMs use' net metering' to pay compensation.
Off Grid Systems
The second is the off grid system, in which the solar system on the rooftop is not connected to the main grid. With your own battery, this system will run on its own. The solar power produced by the solar system on the rooftop charging the battery that is then used to power different applications. This network is very effective in which there no grid supply is, or when the supply with regular breakdowns is very unpredictable.
The next is the hybrid system where on – grid as well as off – grid networks work in combination. Although a battery is used in this type of system, the benefit here is that the excess power produced is fed to the grid after the battery is fully charged which produces additional revenues for the user.
Key points about PV Systems under the Subsidy Scheme
India has held the title about being the world's fastest growing solar power market, while also boasting of being the countries with the lowest – cost solar power manufacturer. For the government working to develop solar power as a primary source of energy, various schemes have been launched to enhance the domestic use of solar energy.
- Approximately 100 square feet of space is required for the installation of the rooftop PV system.
- The average cost of installation of rooftop PV system without subsidy is around Rs 60,000 – 70,000.
- After availing 30 per cent subsidy, people just have to pay Rs 42,000 – 49,000 for installing a rooftop PV system.
- In order to avail generation-based incentive, the customer should generate 1100 kWh – 1500 kWh per year.
- Under the scheme, a customer can earn up to Rs 2000 to 3000 per annum as generation – based incentive.